Urban Planning and Architectural Design

Time:2023-07-21 Hit:

A city is a space composed of buildings, greenery, roads, water systems, and cultural landscapes that serve people. Urban planning addresses the combination of various factors and the six sensory scales of human perception, while architectural design addresses the coordination between individual building functions and the urban environment under the influence of detailed urban control planning.

Urban planning is the analysis and design of urban space, that is, the coordination of the spatial relationships between human activities and various regional spaces. Architectural design is the result of meeting the requirements for the use, economy, and aesthetics of indoor spaces, while also coordinating with the surrounding environment, urban historical context, and urban control planning on the premise of having certain characteristics and styles of the times in the external form. Urban planning is the dynamic solution and coordination of the connections between various buildings, the overall image of building clusters, and the continuation of a city's history from an ecological and sustainable perspective, looking forward to the future of the city. Here, I attempt to analyze urban space, taking space as the dominant factor, and discuss the impact and constraints of urban planning on architectural design.

Analyzing Urban Space

Space: Urban space is a type of space, but what is space? The term 'space' has been used in architecture for nearly a century. Later, when cities were designed, space was transplanted into the city and became urban space... Throughout history, buildings were seen as entities by Westerners and as the subject of shaping, and architects vigorously carved the building itself like sculptures. At the end of the last century, a revolution occurred in the construction industry, where people saw the previously invisible "space". The architects' previous concept hall collapsed with a bang, as if everything was "black and white reversed". The outstanding representative figure of modern architecture, Wright, once presented a paragraph from Chinese Laozi to illustrate his creative intention:

Thirty spokes in one hub, when it is not available, it serves as a vehicle; The heart is like a vessel, but when it is empty, it serves as a vessel; Chisel the doors and windows as a room, when there is no room, there is a room for use; Therefore, what is beneficial and what is not is useful.


Here, 'nothing' Wright regards it as space. A brand new concept has entered the architect's thinking and his people's lives. Afterwards, architecture gradually became the art of space, regarded as a series of interconnected spaces.

Differences and Similarities between China and the West: Chinese people have never depicted individual buildings as the main body. The attention of Chinese architectural craftsmen has always been focused on architectural groups. Li Yunzhu once said in his book "Chinese Artists": "Chinese architecture unfolds on a flat surface." Chinese architectural craftsmen consider the "courtyards" between buildings. In ancient Chinese architecture, a single building was organized around a "courtyard", which was referred to as a basic organizational unit. Several courtyards formed an architectural group, and the saying "no courtyard, no group", The spatial experience between courtyards is not the same, resulting in a rich and colorful architectural spatial effect. Western architects have paid more attention to the individual buildings themselves, and have put a lot of effort into shaping the form of individual buildings. Therefore, the form of Western architecture is much more complex than that of ancient Chinese architecture. On the other hand, in terms of urban spatial design, China is one of the earliest cities, and has long focused on the relationship between architecture and architecture. The Forbidden City in Beijing and Jiangnan Gardens are all ironclad evidence!

The concept of space: Western architects have always taught us what space is: it is a graph based relationship. Regard the house as an entity, with the surrounding environment as the foundation, we can only see the house; If the house is treated as the bottom, the shapes around the house appear, which is space. Take the space of Siheyuan as an example.

Many predecessors have already made it clear to us. G. G. Nitsche proposed the following definition of space: "This space has a center, which is the person who perceives it. Therefore, there is a directional system that changes with human activity in this space. This space is not neutral, but has boundaries. In other words, it is finite, heterogeneous, and determined by subjective perception..." This is what he calls perceptual space. J. In his book "Preface to the Theory of Architectural Space," Yedick said, "Architectural space can be discussed as an experiential space," and also said, "Architectural space is linked to people and their perceptual roles, and the so-called space is the sum of the perceptions that follow the place." Heidegger also proposed, "People and space cannot be separated, space is neither an external object nor an internal experience, and people and space cannot be considered separately. Schulz also said in "Architecture of Existential Space": "Simple realists believe that the world is common and the same to all of us, but what we perceive is not that kind of world, but the various worlds generated by our motivations and past experiences

However, what does this relationship and spatial limitation mean? Is it the space itself? No, they are just changes in the bottom of the plane and the horizontal plane gradually rising from the ground, and they cannot represent space. How can space be equivalent to a plane?

Architectural space includes architectural form (plane and facade), texture, materials, light and shadow, and color, all of which combine to form a clear expression of the quality or spirit of space. Even a roar and an echo can make people feel the existence of space. Therefore, the concept of space that is being elaborated on now must not only include visual perception, but also other concepts related to actions and emotions. It should be a feeling, just like our entire skin can feel "spiciness". "spiciness" is not just a taste, not just a taste, but a feeling.

Space consciousness is far more than just a mental activity. It occupies all of consciousness and sensation, requiring the entire self intervention in order to make a comprehensive response. Therefore, summarizing space cannot be done using planes, models, or buildings. Space is the perception and feeling of a person generated by a place. Like human hearing, sound cannot be summarized by object vibration or sound wave curves; Just as human color perception cannot be described by the reflection, absorption, or spectrum of light, space cannot be summarized by planes, models, or buildings. Space is a feeling of people, their perception of the surrounding environment and place, and their sense of self positioning.

Urban space: The space within a city, which is the comprehensive feeling that people in the city experience. German architect Robert Krier proposed the concept of urban space: it only refers to all spatial forms between buildings in cities and other places. This type of space is geometrically connected at different levels, and only has clear distinguishability in terms of geometric features and aesthetic quality, allowing people to consciously understand this external space, which is called urban space. In short, it refers to all the spaces in the city and between buildings that can be understood by people. People are always comprehending the city, and the various feelings provided by the city to people are the urban space.

The composition of urban space: When studying urban space, it is necessary to decompose it in order to obtain its constituent elements. Since urban space is a comprehensive experience provided by the city to people, it must be analyzed from the perspective of human perception, psychology, and behavior.

Schuberg. Schultz mentioned in his book "Architecture of Existential Space" that "if the basic achievements brought about by perceptual psychology are expressed in common vocabulary, it is that the early organized diagrams rely on the center, which is the place (proximity relationship), the direction, which is the path (continuous relationship), and the area, which is the domain (closed relationship) Established through the establishment of. People need to master these skills in order to position themselves. Schultz divides space into three parts using perceptual psychology: center, direction, and region.

American Academy Awards. Oscar Newman proposed a spatial system composed of private spaces, semi private spaces, office common spaces, and public spaces in residential environments from a domain perspective, which is classified from human behavioral psychology.

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